Choosing Separate Ways

November 2006

By Amos Morgan


    Copyright © 2006 by Amos Morgan
    Do not duplicate without permission



1. Introduction

2. Background

3. Spreading the Story

4. A New Twist

5. Conclusion

6. Bibliography


I. Florence L Crawford's Testimony

II. Will Trotter's Testimony

III. Ernest Williams' Testimony

IV. Apology

III. What is Glossolalia?

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Many histories have been written about the Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles, California. It is not the intent of this article to re-tell the whole story, but instead, to focus on the story of a few individuals there who have impacted not only my own life, but also the lives of others. Mostly those influences have been for the good. But unfortunately, not all have been.

When studying the Bible we often notice that successes and failures are treated with the same detail. Just because failures sometime occur does not mean the story should be hidden or buried somewhere on the back page. Think of Saul; God sent the prophet Samuel to anoint him the first king of Israel. But later on, God sent the same prophet to tell Saul that the kingdom was taken from him and given to his neighbor who was better than he. Here pride had interfered with the success of God’s original plan for Saul. It is all there in the Good Book for us to read. And notice that Jesus said to his disciples, “Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil?” It seems that the love of money deterred Judas from his original devotion and dedication to Jesus. Yet the story of Judas’ selection as a disciple is still there for us to read as well as the story of his fall.

Pentecostal circles seem to have suffered a disproportionate number of those who fell victim to pride or turned away and departed from ‘the faith which was once delivered to the saints’ giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils. Yet when we review our history we need to include our failures as well as our successes. We need to look for the truth and then proclaim it without hiding a part of it on a back page somewhere. Otherwise our story is not a complete, or a true story. This is not a call to “beat a dead horse,” but rather to correctly understand our own history and so be better able to judge, not only from where we came, but also to better see where we are going.

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Charles Parham came up with the name Apostolic Faith and the motto, “Earnestly Contend for the Faith Which Was Once Delivered unto the Saints,” taken from Jude 3. His was an undenominational, non-sectarian movement. Originally it stood for the doctrines of the late 1800’s Holiness Movement, but by 1901 and in Topeka, Kansas it stood for something different. Today that difference is called Pentecostalism. Parham also published a church paper that he called “The Apostolic Faith”.

In 1905/1906 William J. Seymour embraced and became a part of the Apostolic Faith Movement. On April 12, 1906 he received the Pentecostal experience himself at an evening prayer meeting in the home of Richard and Ruth Asbury on Bonnie Brea Street in Los Angeles. For more than a month before that time, prayer meetings had been held there in the Asbury’s home at 7:30 p.m. About the beginning of April, 3:00 p.m. afternoon prayer meetings at an abandoned church on Azusa Street were added so that ten days of ‘Tarrying Meetings’ could be held without disrupting the Asbury’s home during the day. Three or four days after receiving his baptism, Seymour moved the evening services from the Asbury home to the former church building on Azusa Street where the afternoon prayer meetings had been held. At the old church, space for about thirty chairs placed in a circle had been sufficient for the afternoon prayer meetings, but now a general clean up had to be undertaken and a more conventional seating arrangement had to be made and a pulpit added. This first pulpit at Azusa was fashioned from two shipping crates, and placing boards across nail kegs or between two chairs made the altars. After the move was completed, they held two or three services each day, one at 10 in the morning and at least one more in the afternoon or evening. But very quickly the services that began at 10 in the morning ran all day and into the night. A few people had come to the prayer meetings before the revival began. These were mainly former members of Julia Hutchin’s holiness church on Santa Fe Street. Glenn Cook attended some of the 3:00 O’clock afternoon prayer meetings at the old abandoned church on Azusa Street prior to April 9. April 9 was when the first recorded Pentecostal experience in Los Angeles was received at the evening prayer meetings in the Asbury home. Frank Bartleman also attended some of the prayer meetings, but not on a regular basis. But the ensuing revival at the Azusa Street mission brought worldwide attention. Hearing news of the revival from a friend, Florence Crawford began regular attendance probably beginning in mid to late April. Some time during that summer, Clara Lum also became a regular part of the growing church. Ernest Williams attended the Azusa meetings during that late summer and he also received the Pentecostal experience. Here are some of the people we want to consider;

Clara Lum was a ‘saved and sanctified’ woman before going to Azusa.

Florence Crawford had been reared in southern Oregon by atheistic parents, but was converted possibly five years prior to this time. She was a Methodist before going to the Azusa Mission. For a portion of her testimony see Crawford - Testimony.

Glenn Cook worked for a newspaper and was also a lay preacher in the Holiness Movement.

Ernest Williams came from a Holiness family and aspired to become a minister. See Williams - Testimony for more.

Will Trotter’s story is told in the following quote from issue 10, September 1907 of “The Apostolic Faith” paper.

“The manager of the Union Rescue Mission in Los Angeles, Bro. Will Trotter, received the baptism with the Holy Ghost and as a result he lost his position under men, but God has marvelously anointed him and is using him in the evangelistic work.”

This Will Trotter is not related to the Warren and Mel Trotter families that moved to Los Angeles from Texas at a later date. See Trotter - Testimony for a reprint of part of Will Trotter’s testimony as it appeared on page 3 of the second Apostolic Faith paper published from Portland, September 1908.

G.B. Cashwell of Dunn, North Carolina is another who came to Azusa Mission seeking the Pentecostal experience. After receiving it, he returned to Dunn and from there he traveled throughout the south preaching Pentecost. As a result of his preaching, the Holiness Church of North Carolina, the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, The Church of God, Cleveland, Tennessee and portions of the Free Will Baptist Church re-aligned their doctrines to the Pentecostal view as taught at Azusa. Most of these churches, except for the Church of God, ultimately merged into the Pentecostal Holiness Church. Unfortunately, Cashwell withdrew from them and may even have returned to his old anti-Pentecostal teachings. His failure is the one that most saddens me because his life impacted mine. My parents first met and were married in a small rural Pentecostal Holiness church in northern Florida. Note this report from issue 6, Feb – March 1907 of “The Apostolic Faith

In Alvin, S.C.

“Alvin, S.C., Mar. 2. –In January we heard of Bro. G.B. Cashwell of Dunn, N.C., that had been to Los Angeles and received the Holy Ghost and spoke with tongues. So our hearts began to hunger more and more, and after praying over it, my wife and I decided to invite him to come to our Pentecost meeting which was to begin the 8th of February. He came to us and stayed three days, and in those three days, there were about twenty-three saints that received the baptism of the Holy Ghost, and all of them spoke with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance. I am glad to tell you, dear saints, that I am one of the twenty-three. As soon as He came into my soul, He spake with my tongue in an unknown language. Thank God, the Comforter has come at last. Glory! Glory! Glory! We have had several short meetings since we received the Holy Ghost in which several were saved, sanctified, and eight or ten others have received the baptism with the Holy Ghost and all speak with other tongues. Demons have been cast out in the name of Jesus. -F.M. Britton.”

Issue 8, May 1907 gives us a few more details;

"Pentecost has swept across the country, and through the instrumentality of Brother Cashwell a great number of the officials and members of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church have given up their man-made theories about Pentecost and gone down and received the genuine Pentecostal baptism, with the Bible evidence following.

As far as we can learn, the general overseers, ruling elders, and evangelists are swept in, with a few exceptions, and we are looking to God to continue the work until we are a unit on true Bible lines. It was hard for us to die, but God marvelously worked, as you will see by The Apostolic Evangel, and we feel that great things are ahead.

Like yourselves we have decided not to go in debt to get out the paper, and it is marvelous and glorious how God is supplying our needs.

Our editor, Brother J.H. King, will probably be in Oklahoma in May, with Brother Cook, and he may go to visit you." – A.E Robinson, Royston, Ga.

Issue 12, Jan 1908 gives still more details of the work done by Cashwell;

Arcadia, Fla., and through the South. —Brother G.B. Cashwell and I are in the midst of a gracious revival in this town. The power is falling and saints are shouting. Bless God! Some have been saved, sanctified, and quite a number have received the Holy Ghost and speaking with other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance as in Acts 2:4. The altar is filled with seekers. God has kept me in Florida most all this year. Many saints have received the Holy Ghost in Florida with Bible evidence and many saved. A number of them have been baptized in water, buried in baptism, that is the Bible way. —F.M. Britton, Dec. 11.

William Durham, pastor of a church on 943 North Avenue in Chicago came to Azusa in late February 1907. After receiving his Pentecostal experience, he returned to Chicago and held a great revival there.

Correspondence began pouring in from across the country inquiring about the revival. At first Clara Lum answered some of the letters, but she could not keep up even though she probably had some help, so they followed Parham’s example and published a paper which would be used in place of answering multitudes of personal letters. To avoid confusion with Parham’s Apostolic Faith paper it would be published by, “The Apostolic Faith Movement of Los Angeles,” but still called “The Apostolic Faith.” Many people speculate that Seymour was editor of that paper, and some have even said it was so, but we can easily determine that he was not. For one thing, the paper had a stated policy that no editorial credit would be given. This seems a little strange because almost every other article in the papers was credited. If you wrote a letter, gave a testimony, preached a sermon, wrote an article, or told of an event, your name appeared below the article. It seems that only editorial statements were unsigned. However if we read the first editorial, appearing on page one, columns one and two, of the first issue of the paper, it becomes obvious that Seymour did not write it. Bearing the banner headline, “Pentecost Has Come.” in the second half of the second paragraph it proceeded to say, “The writer attended a few of these meetings and being so different from anything he had seen and not hearing any speaking in tongues, he branded the teaching as third-blessing heresy, and thought that settled it. It is needless to say the writer was compelled to do a great deal of apologizing and humbling himself to get right with God.” This wording rules out Seymour and all female persons as the writer of that editorial. On examination, not one unsigned editorial can be directly attributed to Seymour, but his sermons and answers to direct questions were always signed.

It is in no way a criticism of Seymour that he did not edit the paper. Consider that Ernest Williams was elected general superintendent of the Assemblies of God in 1929 and held that position for about twenty years. At no time during those years was he the editor of the official church paper. Consider also Joseph King, elected general superintendent of the Pentecostal Holiness Church in 1917. In his memoirs he tells how he ceased from editorial duties when he was elected general superintendent. It is OK that Seymour was not the editor of the “The Apostolic Faith.” That distracts nothing from him, but more importantly, it is the evident truth.

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Wm. F. Manley, editor of the “Household of God” requested that Azusa send some Gospel workers to Oakland, California to help in his church there so he could take time off and attend the meetings at Azusa to seek for his personal Pentecost. G.W. and May Evans, and Florence Crawford answered the request, going there some time during July or August 1906. While in Oakland, Sister Crawford went over to San Francisco and contacted some people who were interested in having cottage meetings there. Apparently this was her first ‘new ground.’

Parham came to town. He had been expected sooner, but went by way of Zion, Illinois, before going on to Azusa. High hopes had been pinned upon his arrival, but higher disappointment resulted when he came. Excluding the local newspaper, the ratio runs about 200/1 of those who were inspired by going to Azusa as opposed to those who saw only evil and bad things there. Parham gave an evil report and said he was repulsed by what he saw there. Others say that instead, he was expelled for what was considered a false teaching. He espoused a doctrine of ‘no eternal hell,’ sometimes called ‘Conditional Immortality’ and that did not fly at Azusa. “Being repulsed” might well have been a cover-up for being invited to leave. Thus ends the association of Azusa with Parham’s Apostolic Faith. As a result, the next Azusa paper was published by, “The Apostolic Faith Movement Headquarters, Los Angeles.”

Ernest Williams received his Pentecostal experience and, after a time, told Seymour that he felt lead to become a minister. As far as Williams could tell, Seymour did not react nor respond to his approach, so he felt rather uncomfortable about the situation and was not sure what to do next.

In the fall of 1906 Florence Crawford made her second trip, responding favorably to an invitation from M.L. Ryan to hold special services in his Salem, Oregon church. Seven workers left Los Angeles headed for Oakland. Once there they would split into smaller groups and go in various directions. Ophelia Wiley, a black lady minister, and Sister Crawford would head for Salem while the others went in different directions. In Oakland, Sister Crawford found herself drawn back to San Francisco, so Wiley proceeded on to Salem with a minister named Williams from Oakland. About a month later Sister Crawford arrived in Salem. We cannot positively identify the Williams who went to Salem, but he was not the Ernest Williams of Los Angeles.

While in Salem, Sister Crawford received an invitation from the wife of John Glassco to hold special services in his holiness church in Portland. Glassco was pastor of a black congregation located in downtown Portland at Second and Main Streets in a building that had once been used as a blacksmith shop. After a couple of weeks in Portland, Sister Crawford returned to Los Angeles going by way of Santa Rosa. At about the same time that she was in Salem and Portland, Glenn Cook returned to his hometown of Indianapolis, Indiana then going back to Los Angeles by way of Lamont, Oklahoma. Cook agreed to return to Lamont and Sister Crawford agreed to return to Portland where they each would take charge of a camp meeting in 1907. Azusa Mission would also hold a camp meeting in 1907. The Azusa Mission would not close down, but a camp meeting would run concurrently with the meetings at Azusa.

In his memoirs, Joseph H. King tells us that he was invited to assist in the 1907 camp meeting in Lamont. (See the foregoing reference to J.H. King which appeared in issue 8, May. 1907 of “The Apostolic Faith.”) Glenn Cook was in charge, but King did much of the preaching. In his memoirs, King relates: “One day he [Cook] desired to have a private interview with me, and I consented. In the course of the conversation he made an attack upon the doctrine of sanctification as we taught it. He spoke contemptuously of it, and seemed to think that the Lord, in the work he was doing in California and elsewhere was endeavoring to show that sanctification as a distinct experience was unscriptural. … The people who invited him [Cook] did not know that he entertained such views, and since I was only invited to assist him in the meeting, I did not expose him.”

Cook held a position of some authority there in Azusa, but this personal view that sanctification was not a second definite work of grace seemed to have been kept from public view. This was not from ignorance, for the point of “two works of grace” was always prominent in the church paper, “The Apostolic Faith.” This is from issue 10, September 1907.

The Brazen Altar, Justification

First we come to the court of the tabernacle. This is where the sinner does his first works. Here we find the brazen altar which stands for justification. We receive pardon and regeneration right at the brazen altar. On the altar is the sin offering, on the horns of the altar, blood. Here is pardon and regeneration combined. As soon as a soul is pardoned, he is washed and the work of regeneration is wrought in his soul. Here we find also the laver, which stands for the washing from guilt and pollution. The priest always washed himself before he entered the Holy Place. Here the sinner, even though his sins be red like crimson, is justified. "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ." This is court work.

The Golden Altar, Sanctification

There are two altars, the brazen altar and the golden altar. We see this represents two works of grace, two altars. Now the believer comes to the golden altar. Since the new birth is implanted in his soul, he has access to present himself a living offering. When he came as a sinner, he was dead in trespasses and sins, and had nothing to consecrate. Now he can consecrate himself to be sanctified. Here he finds on the altar the Blood of Jesus, which represents Christ the sanctifier of His people. He receives Christ to rule and reign supreme in his soul, and every enemy of doubt and carnality is cast out and destroyed by the Blood. Then he is one with Christ. "For both He that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one."

This is the Holy Place. All that enter wear holy garments, the white linen of the saints. Here we find the shew bread, which represents feeding upon Christ. When we get a holy heart, it calls for the Word of God. Now you have a holy feast continually. You have the Word, Christ Jesus planted in your heart, and you have faith. You believe every word of God.

Here in the Holy Place, you find the golden candlestick whose light is always burning. This is the light of holiness shining forth. There is always a fire in your soul. Why? Because you are on the altar and the altar sanctifies the gift, and the gift keeps pure and preserved. The only way men and women can be preserved is by living on the altar. And the holy incense of praise and prayer is always ascending from your heart to God. Then you are prepared for the baptism with the Holy Ghost.

The Holy of Holies, the Holy Ghost

We can see that the baptism with the Holy Ghost is not a work of grace for there is no altar in the Holy of Holies. This is another step, the gift of the Holy Ghost. Instead of an altar, there is an ark of gold, which represents the Lord Jesus Christ perfected in you, for in Christ you have the experience of justification, sanctification and the baptism with the Holy Ghost. There is always prayer and praise to God here, as you see those cherubim over the altar praying and praising God.

In the ark, you find Aaron's rod that budded, which represents justification; the hidden pot of manna, which stands for sanctification and the tables of stone on which God wrote Himself, representing the baptism with the Holy Ghost. Right above the ark, is the great Shekina glory. The Holy of Holies did not have any light from the sun, neither did it have any candle, but the light of the Holy Ghost lit it up. Over it rested the pillar of cloud by night and the pillar of fire by day, the very presence of God. When a man or woman gets the baptism with the Holy Ghost, they are filled with continual light. It is a greater light than when you were sanctified. It is the full blessing of Christ. Justification and sanctification come from God through His death on the cross, and He also purchased on the cross the baptism with the Holy Ghost for every believer.

Sister Crawford returned to Los Angeles before the end of the long Portland camp meeting. There she selected two young men from the Los Angeles camp meeting to go to San Francisco to assist in the work there. She arranged with Seymour for a ministerial license for at least one of the two, Ernest Williams. She then began her third trip headed first north and then east. We read about this also in issue 10, September 1907;

“In Oakland just as the paper goes to press, word comes from Sister Crawford who is on her way east that the power of God is falling. In San Francisco the work is going forward with two young brothers from the campmeeting in charge.”

The Apostolic Faith was nonsectarian and undenominational, so the association of ministers from Azusa (Crawford) with the group then at Ninth just off East Fourteenth in Oakland (under Wm. F. Manley) continued for about one year until it ended near the end of 1907. In describing the events of this time one of the members wrote, “Mr. Manley felt that he had other leanings, and 13 of the group left and rented a hall in Oakland across from the old Tribune Building.” Beginning with these thirteen, an Apostolic Faith mission was begun that lasted from the end of 1907 until about 1914 when they combined with the congregation in San Francisco at 755 Howard St. See list of APOSTOLIC FAITH MISSIONS ON THE COAST for a listing of both church locations in 1911. By the end of 1914, the San Francisco address is listed on Howard Street, but there is no longer an address for Oakland.

On Florence Crawford’s third trip, J.R. Conlee and Will Trotter accompanied her from Portland north and then east to Winnipeg, Canada. From there they continued on to Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. Each of the three trips taken by Sister Crawford thus far had been by invitation. Manley had requested Azusa preachers to take care of his church while he went to the Azusa Mission to seek his Pentecost. M.L. Ryan requested that she come to his Salem, Oregon church for revival services there, and then Pastor Glassco’s wife invited her on to Portland. Her third trip was in response to an invitation from Bro. White of St. Paul, Minnesota for help in meetings he was holding there. Conlee had been in Minneapolis previously and was returning. “The Apostolic Faith,” issue 12, Jan. 1908 adds details to this part of our story;

Winnipeg, Canada. —There was a great Pentecostal Convention in Winnipeg beginning November 15th. Preachers and workers from all parts of Canada were present. A band of workers who were in Portland at the time received a call from God to go to Winnipeg, and they were present at the convention: Sister Crawford and Mildred, Sister Neal, Brother Conlee and Brother Trotter. About twenty were baptized with the Holy Ghost and many were healed. The people brought handkerchiefs and aprons to be blessed as in Acts 19:12, and the Lord did wonderful signs through the simple faith of the dear ones that brought them. The Lord healed one young man of the tobacco habit, taking all the desire for the stuff away from him, through an anointed handkerchief, and he was saved in his own room. Demons were cast out of those bound by them. Our last published report from Winnipeg should have been signed,
"The Apostolic Faith Mission, 1 Alexander Ave.

"The report continues from Minnesota;
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.-Wonderful outpouring of the Spirit here and at St. Paul. In five nights just passed in St. Paul alone, nine have received old time baptisms of the Holy Ghost and fire, speaking in many dialects and receiving wonderful visions from the Lord. Amen! Nine have been blessedly sanctified, some being for hours under the power. Six have been soundly saved and scores healed. One woman dying with cancer—given up to die by three specialists, next morning after being prayed for arose and did her work, and has been doing it ever since—healed. I was in St. Paul last week and Brother Trotter was here, and in both places, the power was wonderful—yesterday especially, many being instantly healed and many saved. People were prostrated under the power of God at 11:30 last night. Many were heavily anointed for their baptism, and we expect a shower in the next few days. Glory is abiding in our hearts. —Florence Crawford, 1315 East 19th street, Minneapolis, Minn., Jan. 6.

A later report written Jan. 13th, says: "I wish to report victory in both St. Paul and Minneapolis. Yesterday was a great day. We had the ordinances of the Lord's Supper and Foot-Washing Saturday night, and saints from St. Paul all came over and participated with us. Some fell under the power and lay for several hours. We had a blessed time. We then invited St. Paul saints to worship with us on Sunday afternoon. Sister Crawford gave the message in the afternoon. I gave it in the morning; and Brother Trotter in the evening. People fell under the power all day. And when I left the hall at 5 p.m., they were lying all over the hall under the power. The hall was an altar from the stand to the door. So many are getting saved, and many that have been claiming to be sanctified are finding that they were just saved, and are now getting really sanctified. Greetings to the church at Azusa Street." JR. Conlee, 1003 25th avenue, NE., Minneapolis.

While in St. Paul, Sister Crawford received a letter from Portland inviting her to return to Portland and accept the leadership of that group. After praying about it, she felt a definite call from God to move to Portland and make that her home. Little documentation exists about this crucial time, but various theories have been suggested.

Consultations with Seymour resulted in an amicable arrangement. Clara Lum would also go to Portland with Sister Crawford and they would take two of the twenty-two complete mailing lists so that both Portland and Azusa could publish a paper. This decision is reflected in issue 13 of the paper from Los Angeles that stated, "For the next issues of this paper, address THE APOSTOLIC FAITH CAMPMEETING, PORTLAND, ORE." Note that Parham was publishing “The Apostolic Faith” from Baxter Springs, Kansas; F.W. Carothers (with assistance) was publishing “The Apostolic Faith” from Houston, Texas; and Azusa was publishing “The Apostolic Faith” by The Apostolic Faith Mission, Headquarters, Los Angeles. Thus for issue 14 we should expect “The Apostolic Faith,” from Portland, Ore.

It is true that at least one, or perhaps two, people in Los Angeles wanted publishing to continue unbroken from there, including issue 14. But one look at their work quickly tells us they were not at all qualified for such a task. This indicates that it was a lack of competent staff and editor rather than lack of a mailing list (as some have supposed) that prevented Azusa from continuing with a paper from there. An issue 14, dated June 1908 did, in fact, come out of Los Angeles, but all the articles and features were identical to issue 13, dated May 1908. Aside from the date and issue number, the only noted changes occurred on page two. There, the instructions to ‘write to the Portland Campmeeting for the next issues’ was changed to ‘write to 312 Azusa for the next issues.’ And a terse note was added, “If offerings would come in more promptly the paper would come out more regularly. We have no finance society. No one draws a salary: everything is free, as the Lord provides.” The implication was they were asking for money, not addresses. Imagine yourself a recipient of such a paper. Would you write to Azusa for the next issue and send in an offering more promptly after getting a June issue that was identical to the May issue except for the offering request? Apparently few people, if any, did. This number 14 has a unique distinction; no other Apostolic Faith Paper ever asked for offerings. Some people have been confused about the papers, saying that a paper issued from Portland asked for money and that funds were misdirected from Los Angeles to Portland. This is not correct; note the following examples. Issue 12 from Los Angeles and the subsequent issues from Portland all followed the same format. This is from issue 12, Los Angeles;

This paper is free. We accept all donations toward it as free will offerings—not as subscription price.

Notify us of any change in your address, so the papers will not be lost.

Some have inquired how they could send money, as no name was given at the head of the paper. Money orders can be made payable to "The Apostolic Faith, 312 Azusa street, Los Angeles, Cal."

The first issue from Portland, issue 15 July-August 1908 followed the same format. It said in part;

Some have asked how to send money offerings. Stamps are very acceptable. If necessary to get a money order, it can be made payable to the APOSTOLIC FAITH, PORTLAND, ORE.

The Apostolic Faith is a free paper, published printed and sent by faith in God for its support. It strives to honor Jesus only. It contains no advertisements. It has no stated time of publication, but is issued as often as the Lord permits.

The Apostolic Faith never goes in debt or makes known its needs except to God. We thank God for the 15th number of this paper of at least 30,000 copies, which are being sent to every country on the globe by faith in Him.

This paper belongs to the children of God. It is being used to publish the full Gospel to the ends of the earth and herald the coming of our Lord. Let all join in prayer for a wave of salvation to follow the paper, Amen. Souls have received their baptism through reading it.

The third issue from Portland, issue 17, also said in part;

How it rejoices our hearts to be permitted to send the paper free to all. Thank God for a free Gospel. It is such a blessed work. We never have to mention needs to any except our Father in heaven. We accept only freewill offerings, and not subscription price for the paper, because we want to be ready when Jesus comes, and not in debt to subscribers. So whatever is given will be used at once in sending the paper to as many as we can.

Some of the Lord’s poor people (and they are most all poor) write that they wish they could send money for the paper, but are not able. Dear loved ones, do not worry about that, because the Lord gives the means, and we look only to Him. We would rather you would send for a roll of papers and give them out to hungry souls than to send money, for you might reach some soul for whom Christ died that is worth more to Him than the whole world. Let us work together for the salvation of souls and please consider that the paper belongs to you and all the saints of God everywhere.

A second June 1908, issue 14 paper with all new articles, also came from Los Angeles, however it was printed without a masthead, so the date, the issue number, the address etc. had to be written by hand. The following image shows the banner headline that replaced the masthead. Handwritten information varied from paper to paper, both in location and in amount of information listed. We do not know which of the two issue 14 papers appeared first, but neither of them asked for, or complained about a lack of, addresses. That was (is) a non-issue in Los Angeles.

Vol.2 #14 P.1 Los Angeles, Cal June 1908 Subscription Free

Oddly, this issue did not mention Seymour’s name even once nor did it quote him at all, whereas it quoted Sister Crawford and gave information from Portland. This led some people to credit this paper to Sister Crawford, but that is not so. Page two instructs the reader to write to 312 Azusa for the next issue and most issues had Los Angeles written on the front page. Here are some examples from this Los Angeles issue 14 paper;

Portland, Ore.—They have a real live Pentecostal work here. The workers have been scattering the Gospel in hospitals, jails, ships, etc., and on the street with a Gospel wagon. They are expecting a great time at the campmeeting this summer as God has His way.

Many cases of disease have been instantly healed and homes made happy by sin being removed.
Sinners have been saved by the score. Deaf ears have been unstopped and eyes have been restored, the saints laying aside their glasses.

Sister Crawford went to pray for a sister for her healing. She laid hands on her and God healed her, and then God sanctified her, and then God baptized her with the Holy Ghost. Her husband who was sitting by her side was a backslider and cried out to God for salvation and God saved him. So wrote Brother Griffin.

An opium fiend was soundly saved and gave up a package of opium. He arose and testified what God had done for him, the sobs shaking his whole body. A drunk was saved and gave up his tobacco. A man was sanctified and gave up his lodge pin.

In the Christian Alliance Mission, a blessed spirit prevails, and souls have received the baptism of the Holy Ghost.

A daughter had hands laid on her for healing the first time she came to the meetings. As she stood testifying to her healing, the baptism of the Holy Ghost fell on her.

The saints prayed over a handkerchief for an unsaved one that the doctors said could not be helped, and she was immediately healed by the handkerchief being put under her pillowslip.

The saints have a rea1 missionary spirit and have been sending hundreds of dollars to famine sufferers and true workers in foreign lands. —Apostolic Faith Mission, 223 Madison street.

Apostolic Faith Campmeeting---We are expecting a great campmeeting at Portland beginning the first of June and continuing indefinitely or until the Lord closes it. It will no doubt be a time of the outpouring of the Spirit as all keep in unity and come meet to God. Address Apostolic Faith Campmeeting, Portland, Ore.

Truly "this is that." O the greatness of this wonderful baptism. The wonder that fills my soul to think I should live to see this day when the Holy Ghost is poured out, and see the mighty signs and wonders follow this great power. I can't get used to it. There remains yet the same amazement that I had when I heard the dear ones speaking in tongues two years ago, when it stirred my very being, and I wondered if it could be possible it was for me. O my very soul is on fire with loyalty to Jesus for all He's done for me. To have Jesus and the power of the Holy Ghost in our lives in this wicked and adulterous generation, oh it's wonderful. Bless His name. —Sister Florence Crawford, Portland, Ore.

Of course there were reports from many other places beside Portland, including both national and international addresses. Several things seem evident here. Among the most obvious is that the new Azusa editor relies on letters coming to Azusa from outside sources for information. No longer are the Azusa meetings taken down in shorthand form, so that resource is dried up, but editorially there was nothing about Azusa either. Nor was there a doctrinal statement about sanctification in this issue 14 although the word ‘sanctification’ appeared a few times. The fact that news from Azusa is missing, and the omission of a doctrinal statement about sanctification, are indicators that a different editor is at work, so Seymour was not the editor

In the fall of 1909 three of the trustees from Azusa went to Portland to incorporate that mission as an auxiliary of the Azusa Mission and to formally establish that Portland was authorized to publish the paper. (This could have been a repudiation of those two number 14 papers). Remember that we are still non-sectarian and undenominational. We are all Apostolic Faith. Apparently Sister Crawford retained her position in the Azusa hierarchy. In the early days she was State Director and Glenn Cook was Assistant State Manager, but as we have seen, both Cook and Crawford were working outside the state before the ink was dry on those titles. Some see a conflict between Portland and Azusa in the incorporation, and indeed a conflict did occur at a later time, but this was neither the time nor the reason. Keep tuned.

About this time Sister Crawford sent Will Trotter from Seattle to San Francisco thus freeing Ernest Williams to pursue pastoral duties at another location. About six months later (in 1910) Williams moved to Portland and became a part of the ministerial staff there. It was at about the same time that Allan V. McPherson also moved to Portland from Hobart, Oklahoma.

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In issue 6, Feb-Mar. 1907, The Apostolic Faith carried this news item.

Bro. W.H. Durham of 943 North Ave., Chicago, Ill., and Bro. H.L. Blake of Ruthton, Minn., who are both preachers of the Gospel, came to Los Angeles to see and investigate what God was doing. They both were baptized with the Holy Ghost and went back filled and saturated with the power of God, speaking in tongues and magnifying God. It was a great blessing to us to have them with us and see what great things the Lord did for them and the blessing overflowed upon all God's children. They are members of the World's Faith Missionary Association.

A letter from W. H. Durham appeared in the same issue. It was dated Mar 19, 1907 and said in part;

“Sunday, Feb. 10, I attended my first all-day meeting. The first man I met on entering the building was Bro. H.L. Blake of Ruthton, Minn., who still believed he had received the baptism with the Holy Ghost in sanctification, and the anointings and fillings that followed; but I told him I was convinced that what I had was not the baptism.”

“The first thing that impressed me was the love and unity that prevailed in the meeting, and the heavenly sweetness that filled the very air that I breathed. I want to say right here, that I have attended many large holiness camp meetings and conventions, but I never felt the power and glory that I felt in Azusa Street Mission,…”

“Now just a word concerning Bro. Seymour, who is the leader of the movement under God: He is the meekest man I ever met. He walks and talks with God. His power is in his weakness. He seems to maintain a helpless dependence on God and is as simple-hearted as a little child, and at the same time is so filled with God that you feel the love and power every time you get near him.” -W.H. Durham.

This, and other parts of Durham’s letter, gives a clear indication that his doctrine was Holiness, not Baptist in 1907 when he arrived at Azusa. Both Durham and Blake professed holiness-taught sanctification when they arrived at Azusa. Some would defend Durham’s later disavowal of holiness-taught sanctification by saying one’s view of sanctification depended upon their background, whether it was Baptist or holiness. But this criteria does not apply to him even though he apparently was raised a Baptist. We notice that Seymour also had a Baptist background. And notice Durham’s appraisal of Bro. Seymour as God’s leader. How could it be that almost exactly four years later, while Seymour was away on a trip, Durham would returned to Azusa for the purpose of trying to unseat Seymour and rid the Apostolic Faith of the holiness sanctification doctrine?

William Durham devised a doctrine that is in direct conflict with that of the Apostolic Faith. We have freedom of religion and we can choose to believe whatever we like. The problem lies in his choice to call his new doctrine “Apostolic Faith” and try to change the existing organization to suit his own purposes and to unseat Seymour. We are aware that Glenn Cook may have held similar views on sanctification, but as long as Sister Crawford and Clara Lum remained in Los Angeles, every issue of The Apostolic Faith paper proclaimed that sanctification was the second, definite work of grace. It is not clear what occurred there in Los Angeles after they moved to Portland.

From the beginning at Azusa, sanctification had been declared a work of holiness brought about by a second application of the Blood of Jesus to our hearts, thus making us holy and making us one with God by restoring us to the pre-fall nature of Adam. Durham said that by asking for a second application of the Blood (as taught by John Wesley) we were discrediting the first application as inadequate. Said he, “We are sanctified when we are saved.” Noting that Jesus said, “It is finished.” just before he died on the cross, Durham called his doctrine ‘The Finished Work of Calvary.’ On his web site, Jim Kerwin notes that Durham said he believed in entire sanctification, but that it was given at salvation, not as a crisis experience and not as a second application of the Blood. Well, at this point it would take a book to explore all the ramifications and examine all the scriptures relating to the subject, but this was ‘New Light’, not new Scriptures. Anyway, to get on with our story, when Durham decided to convert the Apostolic Faith to his “new light,” a lot of things changed for a lot of people. We do not know in what order the next chain of events occurred during 1911, but we can only list them one at a time, thus giving the appearance that they occurred in that order. This may not be the case. Please keep that in mind during the next few paragraphs.

Durham came to Portland and told Sister Crawford that he wanted to preach his Finished Work there. In a letter to Crayne, here is how Allan McPherson remembered it.

Pastor Durham wanted Sister Crawford to let him preach his “finished work of Calvary” at Front & Burnside St. and she told him he never would. He said he would open a mission close by and take all her members away from her. She said “You are welcome to every member you can get.” He got a mission on Ankeny St. about 3 blocks from our place and one night a group of about 5 from the Apostolic Faith, including Bro. Lesher and myself went to hear him but very few people were there and we could not stand the spirit of the man and walked out and I think there could not have been more than 6 or 8 people left in his meeting when we went out. This event took place about 1911.

The Upper Room Mission in Los Angeles also turned Durham away, but Seymour was out of town; so whoever was in charge at Azusa let him preach. This was about mid-February 1911. Durham proceeded to degrade Seymour’s ministerial abilities and took a vote to see who would like to have himself as pastor in place of Seymour.

Seymour had cancelled his further travel plans and hurried back to Azusa. He locked Durham out of the church, but he was too late. Durham had already made an impact. Race became an issue, so most of the black people stayed with Seymour while most of the white folks followed Durham to a large, rented meeting hall. There were many more white members than black members at Azusa so Durham took most of the congregation and left Seymour with a small black group. It is estimated that about 600 people followed Durham, although many of them may have newly come to Azusa to hear about his ‘New Light.’

Upon learning this, Sister Crawford took some of her staunchest supporters and headed down to Los Angeles. Stopping first at the Upper Room Mission, she asked Elmer Fisher what was happening. It turned out that a significant number of Fisher’s congregation had already forsaken him to follow Durham and the exodus was continuing. Surprised, Sister Crawford suggested that if things were spiritually right there at the Upper Room people should not be deserting him. Thus ended the association between Portland and the Upper Room Mission. Seeing that sanctification as she had been taught it there at Azusa in April of 1906 was under attack and that, as far as she could tell, most of the congregations at both Azusa and the Upper Room were being swayed by it, Sister Crawford quickly opened a mission there in Los Angeles in order to maintain the original doctrines as at the beginning for whomever wished to follow the “Old Paths”. Many decried her judgment that a let-down, or easing of standards, and/or doctrines, was the root cause for the demise occurring in the former congregations there in Los Angeles, but the bottom line is obvious these ninety-five years later. She opened a mission hall located at 115 E. First Street and installed Herb Green as pastor. Many of those who followed her to that mission came from the Upper Room Mission, but there may have been others from Azusa and from some of the other Pentecostal Assemblies there in that area. Fisher then closed the Upper Room Mission and took his remaining congregation to a location on Mercantile Street. Here is a story as it appeared in the paper published from Portland at that time;

IN THE RESCUE MISSION AT 115 E. FIRST St., LOS ANGELES, the first night it was opened, the hall was packed to the doors and they were standing out on the street, and seven sinners came to the altar. One drunkard that was saved stood up with the tears streaming down his face and said: “This is not the first time God has met me for when I was dying in Boston I had them write to Portland, Oregon to pray for me, and God instantly healed me. I never got away from it.”

One night while the Word was going forth, the preacher asked all who wanted to meet Jesus to raise their hands. The people raised their hands all over the house and the drunkards clear back to the door raised their hands. And a man raised his hand for prayer, and when a brother asked him to come to Jesus, he said it was no use for he was too hardened a criminal. But the brother persuaded him to come, and he had only been kneeling at the altar a few minutes, when God saved him. He sprang to his feet and jumped up and down two feet in the air, crying and saying, “Glory to God, glory to God, He saved me.” He is sanctified now and seeking his baptism.

Just a personal note here;

On Sunday, September 17, 1911, Ione Nix was invited there to the mission on 115 E 1st in Los Angeles by her friend Carrie Fitzmaurice (later Carrie Niord) and she began her Christian life two days later while in Carrie’s home. Almost 41 years later, on August 18, 1952, she became my mother-in-law at a small garden wedding in Portland. I think it most unfortunate that not until after her death did my serious interest in our church history begin. I did not know the right questions to ask until it was too late to ask them. My father-in-law, W. Lee Nix, remembered his spiritual birthday as March 12, 1912 there at the same mission hall. He was a man of few words, but I do remember being told that the Nix family was seated around the table when a telephone call came on June 20, 1936 informing them that Sister Crawford had died. He arose from the table, went to the bedroom and knelt to pray. “Lord, what will happen to us now?” he prayed. The Lord answered, “I have an interest in the outcome of this, too.” He returned to the table and the meal continued. He served for a time on the Board-of-directors of the church in Portland. Well, back to our story

Here is a report from San Francisco. Both this articles and the one preceding it appeared in issue 18 of The Apostolic Faith from Portland in late 1911 or early 1912.

APOSTOLIC FAITH RESCUE MISSION, 945 Clay St., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.—God is working here now. Souls are getting right with God, straightening up their back life, and getting sanctified and the sick healed. We are standing on the old doctrine. We believe in two works of grace, justification by faith and sanctification by faith and the baptism of the Holy Ghost, the gift of power upon the sanctified life. Nothing can change us because we have the experience and we have the Word, and are going to stay with it until Jesus comes. We are one with you striving together for the faith of the Gospel.

Seeing that most of his own congregation has been taken from him and that Sister Crawford had opened a mission there in Los Angeles under her leadership in Portland, Seymour felt greatly challenged, so he went north to confront her. We can empathize with his position, of course, but we can also see where things were going in Los Angeles and that Portland had survived a similar assault from Durham’s teaching without noticeable effect. Think of it this way; if someone came to your church and preached a doctrine that contradicted one of your own doctrines, how likely would they succeed? Would it not depend upon how firmly you believed in your own doctrine? Some feel that Seymour was a victim, but at any rate, if most of his congregation willingly forsook him in favor of someone who changed the doctrines, they must not have espoused those doctrines any longer. Somehow we must conclude that his leadership bore the responsibility for the losses he sustained. And even if it was Glenn Cook who had gradually influenced the beliefs about sanctification there at Azusa, why had Seymour allowed that to happen? Of course we do not really know just what occurred and why it was so, but from our vantage point Seymour’s leadership seems to have allowed the losses he sustained, whereas Sister Crawford clung to the original doctrines and it seems that those who wished to do the same followed her. Her leadership and purpose of heart was strong enough to withstand all of the other winds of doctrine. This strength showed very clearly in her input in issue 13, May 1908 of The Apostolic Faith published there in Los Angeles;

If we do faithfully the work God has called us to, in the face of all hell, we will see results. Many will preach a mere compromise but I will not do it. Can't and be true to God. This old world has seen nothing but failure and weakness on the part of God's people, and the time has come to rise and shine, shake off the yoke. Bless His dear name! As soon as the saints get a little persecution for keeping things straight, they take to the background and say, “May be I was too harsh." But if we won't be faithful in this age, the Lord will raise up those that will. We must have Peters and Pauls in this closing age as well as in the beginning of the church. If we can't stand the evil report as well as the good, we need another dip in the Blood. My soul demands reality. We must be what we say we are. If we have the power of the Holy Ghost, we have something that can stand, and after doing all stand. —FLC.

Sister Crawford has often been criticized for her fiercely strong and uncompromising style of leadership, but what is the bottom line? Pick up the latest issue of the Portland paper, now called Higher Way, and compare the doctrinal statement with the original Azusa papers. They have not changed. This is the legacy of her leadership and of “Earnestly contending for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.

As noted earlier, the chain of events in 1911 are not necessarily listed in the order in which they occurred. We cannot ascertain that order. It is entirely possible that Sister Crawford went to Los Angeles and opened a mission there only after Seymour had lost all the white people in Azusa and came to Portland to rebuild his congregation and his influence. Who knows?

Ernest Williams and Allan McPherson had both moved to Portland in 1910 and were both there when Seymour came in 1911 to confront Sister Crawford. Williams relates that Seymour said, “We cannot both be leader of the Apostolic Faith.” Will Trotter who was present also at the time tried for a compromise, but it appears that his efforts failed. Poor Williams got caught in the middle; Seymour asked him if he planned to continue preaching in Portland, and then revoked the ministerial license (the one he had given him in 1907 at Sister Crawford’s request), upon getting an affirmative response from Williams. Sister Crawford had already made up her mind that she could, and would, head up an all-out effort to retain the original doctrines first believed there in Los Angeles when the ensuing revival swept around the world. She had been successful in Portland while Seymour had suffered a major defeat in Los Angeles. Williams relates that the confrontation was about leadership. McPherson, who was not personally acquainted with Seymour, stated it much more simply in his letter to Crayne. He said;

Mr. Seymour came to Portland, Ore. about 1911 with some of his helpers and tried to take over Sister Crawford’s work at Front and Burnside St., but met with complete failure.

This rather unceremonious assessment at least gives a time frame that agrees with the time Williams was there. Some authors place this incident in 1909, but neither Williams nor McPherson were in Portland in 1909, and both were eyewitnesses. Seymour was not looking for an eighteen-month-old copy of the mailing list as some think. 40,000 copies of issue 13 were published in Los Angeles in May 1908. The Nov/Dec, 1909, issue of the Portland paper stated;

“Apostolic Faith papers in German, Norwegian, Swedish, and French are now on hand. Also 150,000 of these English papers.”

He was looking for more than just the mailing list in 1911; both Williams and McPherson have said he was looking for a position of leadership. Apparently he hoped to regain in Portland what he had lost in Los Angeles.

Several articles appeared in subsequent issues of the Portland paper in question and answer format, but they focused on doctrine, not on who was leader. Here are two of them;

In the last year a leader from Chicago has raised up and published what he calls “new light” and revelations, saying it is not necessary to be sanctified as a second work of grace and that you can receive the Baptism without it. Is this light from heaven?

No. It is contrary to the teachings of the Word of God and to the experiences of God’s people down the ages. The prophets, apostles, martyrs, and holy people of God that have been most used of Him have taught sanctification and lived it. God raised up John Wesley to establish sanctification as a second work of grace subsequent to justification in the Church of Christ, and thousands have gone home to glory with the blessed experience of holiness. God in these last days since 1906 has sent a mighty outpouring of the Spirit upon sanctified souls. We have never seen one in that time receive the baptism without being first sanctified and cleansed by the Blood from all carnality. God never pours out His Spirit on an unclean vessel. Beware of such “new light,” it is a delusion of the devil.

Does this work stand the same in doctrine as at the beginning?

Yes, since God gave us the truth from heaven in the beginning of this “latter rain,” this work has stood against compromise on all lines. God showed there would be a great sifting and siftings came. First on the line of the Bible evidence of the baptism of the Holy Ghost, many who started weakened and fell out by the way, but the truth was established.

Then what a fight we had on the question of women preaching. They said that women had no right to preach the Gospel. That thing had to be fought through, and now there are as many women preaching in the power of the Spirit as there are men.

Then came the fight on the question of divorce and re-marriage. This work stood on the Word, that no person can have two living companions, and God has wonderfully honored that truth.

And today the same truth is on trial for which Wesley was tried 150 years ago, the doctrine of the second work of grace. Many are trying to do away with sanctification, saying that we are justified and sanctified at the same work of grace. It is a dangerous delusion and heresy that has caused many to lose their salvation. They are saying that the uprisings in the soul can never be taken out, that we can never be delivered from inbred sin; but we preach, testify and experience that the old nature is removed, eradicated, and destroyed absolutely.

Sister Crawford moved swiftly to consolidate those groups who held to the original teachings as at the first there at Azusa. Announcing those who were in accord, the Portland paper stated;


There are eleven Missions up and down the Pacific Coast that stand as one in faith and doctrine. The addresses are:
152 10th Ave., East, Vancouver, B. C.
207 First Ave. South, Seattle, Wash.
1312 C. St., Tacoma, Wash.
1104 McKenzie St., So. Bellingham, Wash.
Apostolic Faith Mission, Port Angeles, Wash.
Apostolic Faith Mission, The Dalles, Ore.
Apostolic Faith Mission, Dallas, Oreg.
945 Clay St., San Francisco, Calif.
904 Harrison St., Oakland, Calif.
115 E. First St., Los Angeles, Calif.
Front and Burnside Sts., Portland, Oregon

Thus she defined the Apostolic Faith, Headquarters, Portland, Oregon as a denomination. She was not aware of doing so at the time and it had not been her intention, but her actions became necessary in order to hold together one group and exclude those who either sought to change things or who allowed change to occur. This bears out that there can be no undenominational church. If a single person opposes or proposes a new or different doctrine, the group must either acknowledge or opposes the change. In either case, it becomes a denomination by definition. Durham, and subsequently Seymour, had set the conditions that mandated denominational distinction.

Lets quickly revisit sanctification as a one-work vs. a second work of grace doctrine. Christ gave us a Trinitarian form of baptism. Jesus was himself in the ‘heart of the earth’ three days. The Lord told Noah to build an ark with lower, second and third stories (There is plenty of room here to argue for the greater desirability of a two story ark). God told Moses that they were to hold three feasts in the year; all the males were to appear before the Lord at three set feasts. God showed Moses the pattern of a Tabernacle when he was on Mount Sinai and told him to beware that he followed the pattern. That pattern had THREE, not one, not two, places where blood was applied. First, blood was poured out on the right side of the brazen altar where confession and restitutions were made. Except for the fat which was burned, this sacrifice was eaten by the priest and by the one who offered it. Secondly, another sacrifice was wholly burned outside the camp and a representative amount of the blood of that sacrifice was brought into the sanctuary and either sprinkled before the golden altar or a finger was dipped into the blood and it was applied to the horns of the golden altar. Because this sacrifice was wholly burned, its presence in the sanctuary was represented by showbread that was laid upon a golden table for the priests to eat. Thirdly, it says in Hebrews 9:6-8

Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God. But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people: The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing: (Bold text added for emphasis.)

Here we see an amazing thing; blood was sprinkled before the mercy seat in the Most Holy Place making that the third application of blood in the pattern referenced in Hebrews. How can you argue with the second application of the blood without also arguing against a third application? Well, that is exactly the problem and it became apparent to Durham’s followers, there in Los Angeles. He died in 1912 before reaching his fortieth birthday and was succeeded by Frank Ewart who, at a camp meeting at Arroyo Seco in 1913, rebaptized Glenn Cook in a Unitarian baptism and was in return rebaptized by Cook. So began the “Jesus Only” movement and subsequently they claimed that when they were saved they were sanctified and when they were sanctified they were baptized with the Holy Ghost. This is the logical conclusion of Durham’s teaching. He died before it reached its culmination

It is the teaching of the “Jesus Only’ Apostolic Faith, descended from Durham there in Los Angeles, that glossolalia is the evidence of being saved, sanctified and baptized with the Holy Ghost all at the same time, and they are then water baptized in Jesus (only) name.

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Many people have contributed to Pentecostalism as we know it today. Parham’s early contributions are very much a part of what we are today. And those of us from the south have greatly benefited from the efforts of those such as G.B. Cashwell while those in the north and west benefited from the efforts of Sister Crawford. And Seymour deserves a great deal of credit for being in the beginning of the worldwide revival. But all those who seek the Gospel as it was delivered to us at the beginning owe much to Sister Crawford and her uncompromising stand for the truth as it was delivered to her.

Brother Ray Crawford, who was saved at the Front and Burnside church in October of 1908, became his mother’s principal assistant soon after the 1911 problems. He always referred to her simply as “Mother.” Soon everyone else did so too; she became ‘mother’ or, more formally, ‘Mother Crawford.’ Her earthly journey ended June 20, 1936 in Portland, Oregon.

Clara Lum was a frail, elderly woman when she was first pointed out to me. Being told that she had been “very close to Mother Crawford in the beginning” had no meaning at all to me at the time. I had recently moved to Portland as a twelve-year-old boy (1941) with no sense of history. She died in Gresham, Oregon, a suburb of Portland, in 1946

As noted earlier, Glenn Cook first expressed a difference of opinion about sanctification as a second work of grace and subsequently decided to accept the Unitarian (or Jesus only) doctrine.

It is our understanding that G.B. Cashwell backed down from the Pentecostalism he once espoused and returned to the prevailing holiness doctrine that sanctification is the baptism of the Holy Ghost.

Ernest Williams lived in Portland for a time and married a young lady there. Afterward he and his wife moved east where he accepted a pastorate and looked for affiliation. Upon hearing the call for former Apostolic Faith and Church of God in Christ members to form a new association, he applied and became a member of the Assemblies of God. In 1929 he was elected general superintendent of that organization.

Will Trotter pastored in Seattle, San Francisco and Santa Rosa under Sister Crawford, but ultimately accepted the “One Work” doctrine, as far as we know. He apparently supported the idea of greater tolerance for different views of sanctification.

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1. Issues one through thirteen of The Apostolic Faith published at Azusa Mission are a priceless source of information. Without exception it takes precedent over all other sources of fact or perception. If the cover says, “Edited by Wm. J. Seymour, tear the cover off and keep reading.

2. Two different versions of issues 14 The Apostolic Faith, Los Angeles.

3. Issues one through eighteen of The Apostolic Faith published at Portland, Oregon.

4. Early 20th Century Pentecost, by Richard Crayne. Crayne is an independent Pentecostal Minister and historian residing at Morristown, TN.

5. Ernest S. Williams an interview by James C. Tinney. Tinney’s interest was primarily about the race relations aspect of Seymour’s history, so the scope of this interview is limited by that fact. Race relations were not an issue between Seymour and Crawford. Portland has, and always has had, both white and black members.

6. Yet Speaketh by Bishop Joseph H. King. The Publishing House of the Pentecostal Holiness Church, Franklin Springs, GA

7. Speaking in Tongues by J. C. Vanzant.

8. The Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour by Larry Martin.

9. Letter from McPherson to Crayne dated November 16, 1959, generously shared by Rev. Richard Crayne.

10. Family History by Ione Nix dated March 15, 1964. (My mother-in-law.)

11. Branch Church Histories from individual churches.

12. The Rejected Blessing by Jim Kerwin

I wish to express thanks to Rev. Richard Crayne for sharing personal letters and other informal information as well as allowing use of his referenced booklet.

I also wish to express my thanks to Rev. M. Smith Haley, a researcher with ties to the archives of the IPHC. His research has been most helpful.

A special thanks to Karen Barrett for sharing tips from her vast store of experience.

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  1. Florence L Crawford’s testimony
  2. Reprint of a part of Will Trotter’s testimony
  3. Reprint of a part of Ernest William’s testimony
  4. Apology
  5. What is Glossolalia?
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Florence L Crawford’s testimony

This is a portion of Florence L Crawford’s Testimony (go to the full version)

My friends said, “We’ll go down to a certain home and have a game of cards tonight.” I knew that near that home lived a little woman who knew how to pray. So I went with them; and after arriving, I said, “I am going over to see a woman for a few minutes.”

I went to her door and rang the bell. When she opened the door and looked into my face she said, “You want God.” “Oh,” I said, “I want Him more than anything else in the world!” I fell on my knees right there, and she prayed for me -- and God came into my heart. I do not know how long I prayed; but the sun was shining when I went in and it was dark when I came out.

Oh, it was wonderful; the rest, the peace, the quietness that flooded my soul! And as I wept for joy, I said, “I must go and tell the others.”

One day a Christian friend came to our home and said, “Sister Crawford, I have found the people who preach the whole Word of God.” I asked, “Where are they?” She answered, “I have found them, but they are way down in the lower part of Los Angeles.” She knew that I would go there to rescue girls; that many a dark night I had gone down to a Los Angeles street to get mothers’ wayward boys; and that many a time I had helped them across the street when they were unable to help themselves, lest the cars would run over them -- but she did not believe I would leave the Highland Park area to worship God in the lower part of the city. She did not know whether I had lost the hunger for more of God or not. But the hunger was there.

When this woman told me she had found a people in the city of Los Angeles, I did not say, “I am too proud.” I said, “I do not care where the place is, I want to go. Take me to them!” I would have gone there if I had had to crawl on my hands and knees.

The woman told me of a black man preaching down in Azusa Street. She knew how I had been brought up; and how, in my married life, we looked down on anybody who even spoke to a black person, unless he was a servant in the home. I said, “I don’t care who preaches it. If they have the thing my soul is craving for, I want it.”

We made our way to the mission on Azusa Street and found the people upon whom God had so copiously poured out of His Spirit. It was not a fine hall, just an old barn-like building with only an old board laid on two chairs for an altar; there were no windows in the place; the floor was carpeted with sawdust; the walls and beams blackened with smoke. There were scarcely more than twenty people there. I was not looking at the people. I did not care whether any of them were black or white. I was seeking more from the God of Israel. I looked around to see if anybody saw me go in, but I would not have cared if the whole world saw me go out. I had found a people that had the experience I wanted. I went in and sat down.

They sang a little, but that didn’t seem to touch my heart. They knelt in prayer, but that didn’t move me at all. Pretty soon they got up, and they sang again. Finally a big black man arose to his feet and said, “Hallelujah!” It just went into my soul. He waited a moment and again said, “Hallelujah!” I said, “God, I have heard the voice from Heaven. I have heard it at last.” I could feel in my spirit that the man had something in his heart which my soul was craving. I forgot everything else, for I heard the voice of the great shepherd of the sheep. I was a sheep myself; I was a child of God. The one thing I was wondering was, how could I get it? How could I receive that wonderful blessing on my soul that I had hungered for so long, and that this man had?

Before I left that place I had an interview with the one in charge of the meeting. I told him how God had saved my soul when I was an infidel, and how He had taken me off the ballroom floor and wrought such a marvelous change in my heart. I told him that my carriage, which I used to take my friends out, was now converted into a conveyance to carry food and clothing to the poor. I told him that I visited the prisons and slums. “But,” I added, “I am hungry for more of God. My soul is thirsting for God, and I can’t find the satisfying portion to my heart.” He looked at my squarely in the face and said, “Sister, you have a wonderful case of salvation; but you need to be sanctified.”

From Monday morning until Friday at four o’clock, I continually and earnestly sought God. I would go home, and would come back, not daring to tell my husband and family much about the meetings. They would say, “Who are they?” I would answer, “Some church people who have banded together to pray for the power of God to come down. They prayed and the power fell, and now I am after the same thing.” Oh, the hunger that God planted in my soul! It didn’t matter what my people would say -- my friends and all -- but only, could I get it?

That Friday when I returned to the services, the preacher stopped his preaching and said, "Somebody in this place wants something from God.” I pushed the chairs away from in front of me and dropped to my knees at the altar. The ‘fire’ fell, and God sanctified me. The power of God went through me like thousands of needles. Oh, it was wonderful! Question it? I never can! Depart from it? Never! It is the most choice treasure of my life.

As I went home on the streetcar that night, I didn’t know whether I was walking on the earth or in the air -- and it didn’t matter. When we would come to a street, the conductor would seem to call out, “Praise the Lord!” the next street would be “Glory to God!” I wondered what my street would be. When we came to it, I heard, “Hallelujah!” “Oh,” I said, “that is my street!” I went to my home, and I just raised my hands and cried out, “He sanctified me!” It seemed that all I could say for days was, “He sanctified me!” I had sought it everywhere -- and at last God gave that glorious experience to me.

After God sanctified me they told me that God would give me the power for service, that He would baptize me with the Holy Ghost and fire. The Lord showed me that the Holy Ghost would come only into clean vessels, and that He had cleansed the temple of my heart. I went before Him and pleaded and prayed and praised God and consecrated again, deeper and deeper, and sought for the power to tell a lost world what great things God had done for me.

One week after I was sanctified, as I sat in my chair at one of the services, a sound like a rushing mighty wind filled the room, and I was baptized with the Holy Ghost and fire. The power of God shook my very being, and rivers of joy and divine love flooded my soul. Oh, it was wonderful! This tongue that never spoke another word but English began to magnify and praise God in another language. I was speaking Chinese, and it was the sweetest thing I have ever heard in my life. I used to look at the Chinese and long to tell them in their own language of this salvation, but little did I think He would let me talk in their tongue. But that day He took possession of my tongue, and began to speaking the Chinese language, glorifying God. A Christian Chinese man was there; and when he came and stood before me, he exclaimed, “Chinese white woman!” but the greatest joy to my heart was that I had received the power to witness for Christ, power to tell others what great things God can do in a human heart.

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This is part of Will Trotter’s testimony as it appeared in the September 1908 issue of The Apostolic Faith paper, the second issue from Portland, Oregon.

Salvation Brings a Love for Souls.

With my salvation from sin came an intense love for my fellow man, and a desire to spend the rest of my life in telling some one else of this wonderful Savior. At every opportunity I would rise and give my testimony of how God had saved a hopeless drunken wreck from hell. I was preparing for the ministry when I visited the Pacific Garden Mission in Chicago. There I found men struggling against the same power of sin that had grappled and almost destroyed my life. An intense passion to lead those men to Jesus possessed me. Then and there I was called to leave the ministry and go into rescue work.

Many Drunkards and Hopeless Ones Saved.

After laboring in that mission for ten years, I went to Los Angeles, Cal., where the Lord soon built up a strong rescue work. In that mild climate we could hold immense mass meetings in the open air. The citizens of the city, seeing the far-reaching effects of the work, soon gave me a splendidly equipped Gospel Wagon, with which I went into the slums of the city and carried the Gospel to those who could be reached in no other way.

The Lord wonderfully blest the effort and many drunkards and gamblers, ex-convicts, jail birds and “dope fiends” were rescued and saved. This work increased and soon another Gospel Wagon was purchased and began its work of mercy on the streets, which was followed by a branch mission in another section of the city and a mission among the Spanish people.

By this time my health broke down from the arduous labors, and the summer of ‘97 found me almost laid by on account of my sick body.

Doctors and Treatment Failed.

I was suffering from nervous prostration and general weakness through overwork. Had long since exhausted the different schools of medicine, allopathy, homeopathy, eclectic; had tried osteopathy for over a year, the electrical treatment, magnetic healing and spent some time in the Battle Creek Sanitarium. Finally I took the milk cure and the water cure. All these were of no avail, and finally I was induced to give Divine healing a trial. I went to several who were gifted in this direction and was prayed for, but failed in my effort to obtain healing. In July of ’97 I was attacked with the walking typhoid, although I was at this time under the constant care of one of the best osteopaths in Los Angeles.

Advised to Seek the Baptism of the Holy Ghost.

While lying sick in bed very weak from this disease, I was visited by a former assistant superintendent of the mission who told me that the Apostolic Faith people were holding a campmeeting near where I was living. He said he had received the baptism of the Holy Ghost, and labored with me that I should seek the same blessing. I had previously investigated this work, and was convinced that it was of God, but was so sick that I lacked the necessary interest to think much about it. However, when he held out the possibility of my being healed by going to the grounds, I concluded that I had everything to gain and nothing to lose by going.

So several days later, when I was able to walk, my brother came for me and I started, very weak, and managed to reach the grounds. My entire mind was occupied with the thought of my being healed. I was impatient for the saints to pray for men. However, the Lord had higher things in store.

The worker to whom I appealed for help was led by the Spirit to deal with me in reference to my soul, and soon showed me that I was not sanctified. Soon the saints gathered about me to pray for my healing, and to my surprise, continued to pray that the Lord might sanctify me and give me a clean heart. I began to feel the power of God working in me. The lord gave them a great burden of prayer for me, and they continued to pray that the Lord might baptize me with the Holy Ghost. I found myself yielding to the power of the Spirit, and soon became as earnest as they were that He might fill me with His power.

Joy such as I Had Never Known.

While praying, I lost sight of surroundings. My prayers were turned to praise and to my intense surprise and joy, my vocal organs were soon taken possession of by the power of God. This was followed by a great wave of joy in my entire being, such as I had never known. The praises fairly leaped from my innermost being. The Spirit, having obtained entire control, spoke through me in a strange language. By this time I was on the floor, seemingly content to lie and let the Spirit talk through me.

Healed, Sanctified and Baptized in Less Than an Hour.

It is hard to describe my feelings when I came to realize that in less than an hour God had touched my body, sanctified my soul, and baptized me with the Holy Ghost. O, for a thousand tongues to sing my great Redeemer’s praise. I had received the promise of the Father and the Bible evidence of the baptism of the Holy Ghost.

When I came to the grounds I was very much emaciated, was living on pre-digested foods, weighing about 128 pounds, was unable to take solid food. God touched my stomach and healed it, so that I was able to move on to the grounds and eat pork and beans, boiled cabbage, etc. God had healed my stomach.

The Lord showed one of the workers while in prayer that I must leave Los Angeles and go out on the road and preach the Gospel before I would obtain my full desire in my body. And in September I left Los Angeles for Chicago, preaching the word.

It Cost Position and Salary.

When my health had begun to fail, and with it my spiritual power, the board of directors and mission workers began to pray that God would give me healing and love and power in my life. Many prayer meetings were held for this purpose. When God answered their prayers and I was healed and received the Holy Ghost, they marveled at the change that God had wrought in me, but because I would not denounce the speaking in tongues and refused to agree not to teach it in the mission, I was told that my services were no longer required, and then and there my office was declared vacant. I had long desired to live a life of faith, and the Lord brought it about in His own way. I was cut off from my princely salary and took the narrow way. Amen.

The Lord has supplied my every need abundantly, and has more than verified His promise (Phil. 4:19). As I went in obedience to the word of the Lord into the work, my health began to improve rapidly and my weight increased from 128 to 175 pounds, and for the past year solid have been preaching the Gospel day and night, never seeming to tire. It is Christ in me now, rather than the energy of the flesh in the old work. I thank God forever finding this people.

—Will Trotter, Care of Apostolic Faith Mission, Portland, Or

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This is part of the testimony of Ernest S Williams.

In the early summer of 1906 I was employed in Colorado although my home was in Los Angeles. There I was deprived of the fellowship of other believers. About that time my mother’s letters began telling of the blessing of God that was falling in a simple mission on Azusa Street in Los Angeles. Copies of The Apostolic Faith, published by the mission, were also sent to me.

My father had come under the blessing of the new experience and my mother wrote of the wonderful change it had made in him, although he had been a Holiness man since before I was born. Convinced that this could be none other than a work of God, I returned to Los Angeles in September 1906. I was filled with the Holy Spirit on October 2 of that same year.

My first contact with Pentecost was on a Sunday morning at a former Holiness church, located at Eight and Maple Streets. The service was good, but not unusual. From there I walked to Azusa Street Mission, arriving when the altar service was at its height.

I wish I could describe what I saw. Prayer and worship were everywhere. The altar area was filled with seekers; some were kneeling; others were prone on the floor; some were speaking in tongues. Everyone was doing something; all seemingly were lost in God. I simply stood and looked, for I had never seen anything like it.

Before I began seeking the experience I spent a short time studying my Bible, seeking Scripture which might teach an experience subsequent to the experience of sanctification. I did not wish to be led into anything unscriptural, however much the Azusa Street worshipers might seem divinely blessed. Then the Lord prompted me and I felt I must seek, as my heart was extremely hungry.

I did not hurry into this experience. I remember the first time I was at the altar. I was there to ask God to search my heart. The next day I continued seeking God, hoping to get His assurance that all was well. When I obtained this assurance I began to seek that I might be filled.

I have enjoyed several unusual experiences with God, but none has excelled an experience I received one week before I spoke in other tongues. I was praying at the altar when the spirit of God came over me, dealing with my very flesh. It seemed like my soul was encased in a body which God was taking for himself. Then came a rest I cannot describe. I felt I could remain there forever, resting in the love and greatness of God.

Azusa Street Mission was a very humble place. There was no raised platform for the speaker; no musical instruments strengthened the singing. The benches were poor and not sufficient to fill the building; preaching was so simple it could hardly be called preaching, but God was there. Some from cultured backgrounds affirmed that they had never heard in an opera such exquisite music as when the Spirit of God would sweep over the congregation in what became known as heavenly song.

Healing for the body was fervently taught, but it was not put in first place. Demons were cast out. But worship was the principal thing. As the doings of God were noised abroad, people came from all over the continent, among them leaders and ministers. These were filled with the Spirit during their stay after which they carried back to their fields of labor the story that Pentecost had come again as it came to the church in the beginning.

My time at Azusa Street was of short duration, as I soon began my ministry (untrained though I was).

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Yes, I am aware that it is not possible to put together such a story as this without bias if you have been affected by the outcome. So, being aware of this bias, let’s consider some of the strong points and some of the weak points of this story.

If you have not read all thirteen issues of The Apostolic Faith published from an office in the upstairs room at Azusa Mission, we would urge you to do so. We consider these papers the best of all sources for what happened there in the beginning.

If we have witnessed an event in our youth and recite it from memory when we are old, it is human for us to interpret that event in the light of subsequent events and also to blur the time frame with the passing years. This is true of both friend and foe. Therefore eyewitness accounts quoted from memory, are viewed as only probably accurate if there is no written record from that time period. For instance, Emma Cotton is sometimes quoted as an eyewitness to events that do not agree with written and dated accounts although she did attend Azusa at one time or another. That is not to pick on Mrs. Cotton. We all suffer from the same malady to a lesser or greater extent. The point here is that reports that are written and dated at the time of happening take precedence over oral history relayed to us at a later date. Bias also decrees that we favor oral histories from those whom we have known over oral histories from those we did not know. We admit to a possible fault here also. One case in point relates to an incident in the fall of 1909. Three trustees from the Azusa Mission came to Portland to incorporate Portland as an auxiliary mission. Those trustees did not include William Seymour who may, or may not have, come with the three trustees at the time. We have no written record either way. In 1911 he came to Portland specifically to assert his leadership, to get the mail, and to get the current mailing list. We cannot prove that he did not come for that purpose in 1909, but have not seen any evidence that he did so. So this is a weak point. It is amendable if anyone can show otherwise.

Another admitted weak point is about the disagreement between Seymour and Sister Crawford in 1911. Let me say here that I am not the official church historian and this is not an official history. It is my own observations. The mission of the church is to “Pray,” “Preach,” and “Publish”, not to debate those who disagree with them. But I wonder why had Seymour lost most of his congregation in the first place? It is my opinion that he at least tolerated a modified view of sanctification whatever his own views may have been. In our meetings people testify that they have been saved (often giving a date and place) and sanctified (also giving a date and place, although later in life they may not always remember all those details.) Sanctification is preached as the ‘Hub’ of the gospel. No one claims that they were sanctified when they were saved. Under these conditions, it seems highly unlikely that a present day Durham would find a listening ear. We know when and where we were sanctified and we know the change it made in us. How then could anyone persuade us otherwise? Thus, without any other evidence, I feel that Seymour must have soft-pedaled, or compromised, if not denied, a need for a second definite work of grace called sanctification. A crisis experience. We know that Seymour also softened his stance on speaking in tongues as being the initial evidence of being baptized with the Holy Ghost.

And one final point; Charismatic people will be quick to point out that tongues as spoken at Corinth may not have been Xenolalia. We can agree with that, but consider that the people at Corinth had recently become Christians from a background of heathen worship. They are indeed an exemplary church considering that background, but they needed a lot of Christian maturity. On the other hand, they are definitely not an exemplary church for anyone having a Christian background and having been reared in the faith. See I Corinthians for problems with contentions (1:11); carnality (3:3); fornication (5:1, 2); lawsuits (6:1, 6); Communion of the Lord’s Supper (11:21, 22); tongues (14:23); and the resurrection of the dead (15:12).

If you are a casual reader, the following will be of no particular interest to you, but students and those trying to get a grasp of the ‘real’ Azusa might take note of the following;

When Sister Crawford first came to Portland, the local newspapers did a lot of ridicule just as they did there at Azusa in the beginning. One of the local residents, J.C. Vanzant attended some of the meetings and chose to oppose them. He opposed Pentecostalism as it was taught at Azusa and Portland. Although he was a critic, some of his stories have found their way into some of the historical accounts, so beware. In order to place responsibility on Seymour for one of his criticisms, Vanzant said, “Seymour opened up the Apostolic Faith work in Los Angeles, and he and his people were publishing a paper called “The Apostolic Faith” which carried his name as editor.” Well, I had read all thirteen issues from Azusa and never noticed Seymour as editor. Instead, I thought I recalled a note saying no editorial credit would be given. Since then I have loaded all thirteen issues of the Azusa papers into my computer and did a word search for ‘editor’. Now, neither my computer nor I accept anything attributed to Vanzant without independent verification.

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Combining two Greek words meaning ‘tongues speak’, we can create the English word glossolalia. The definition of this English word is, “A non-understandable utterances spoken in a state of ecstasy.” By adding another Greek prefix (Xeno) (the X is pronounced z in this instance) at the beginning and making it Xenoglossolalia we can create another word meaning, “Speaking in a language known to others, but not understood by the speaker.” Since Xenoglossolalia is such a long word it is often shortened to either Xenoglossia or Xenolalia. It would seems easier to say, “As in Acts 2:4,” than to try to learn new words made up by combinations of foreign words, but some think it more academic that way, so we need to mention it. If these words seems difficult to recall, just remember that the word starting with G allows gibberish and the words starting with X exclude gibberish. Glossolalia is that which powers the charismatic movement.

The purpose of the previous paragraph is to try to say clearly that glossolalia is not necessarily the same as speaking in tongues as in Acts 2:4. If you prefer to say Xenolalia or Xenoglossia, that works too, providing your hearers are familiar with those terms, but some have been misled as to the true meaning of glossolalia. This difference is very important. Those who are speaking in other tongues as in Acts 2:4 while being baptized with the Holy Ghost are unable to communicate in their own language either by speaking, or in writing, while ‘in the spirit’ whether it be for only a few seconds or for minutes or even for several hours. A speaker can do glossolalia at will, but those speaking as the Spirit gives utterance cannot. The Spirit has taken control and they have lost control for however long the Spirit chooses. This understanding is consistent with the teachings at Azusa and with an incident with which I am personally acquainted.

Some years ago a young man who worked for his father in a portrait studio asked for time off from work so he could attend an afternoon youth service at the Portland camp meeting. His father did not attend the church, but willingly gave him the time off. He told his father what time he would return. Many remember that afternoon youth service as a very special occasion. The presence of the Lord seemed very near and many were blest. The young man before mentioned was among those who were baptized with the Holy Ghost that afternoon, and he spoke in tongues for a long while, unable to speak English. Time to catch the bus and return to work kept getting nearer and nearer. What to do? Back then, bus drivers did not give transfers unless requested (now they are considered a receipt and always given). Not wanting to catch the bus while unable to speak English, he decided to write a note to his friend and have them call his father and tell him that he would be late returning to work. After finding a pencil and some paper, he began to write. His friend just supposed the young man wanted to show him that he could write Arabic. He certainly did not know he wanted him to call his father and say that he would be late returning to work.

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